Sets the path to be searched for data files or displays the current search path.
The APPEND command is similar to the PATH command that tells DOS where to search for program files (files with a .COM, .EXE,
or .BAT filename extension). The APPEND command guides the search for data files (such as text files).
Further information: Drive letter assignment
The command redirects requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive.
It can also display drive assignments or reset all drive letters to their original assignments.
The command is available in MS-DOS 5.00.
Main article: ATTRIB
Attrib changes or views the attributes of one or more files.
It defaults to displaying the attributes of all files in the current directory.
The file attributes available include read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes.
The command has the capability to process whole folders and subfolders of files.
BACKUP and RESTORE
These are commands to back up and restore files from an external disk. These appeared in version 2,
and continued to PC DOS 5 and MS-DOS 6 (PC DOS 7 had a deversioned check). In DOS 6,
these were replaced by commercial programs (CPBACKUP, MSBACKUP), which allowed files to be restored to different locations.
BASIC and BASICA
Main article: IBM BASIC
An implementation of the BASIC programming language for PCs.
The Basic language as implemented by this was a very common operating system on 8- and 16-bit machines
that were made in the 1980s.
CD and CHDIR
Main article: cd (command)
The CHDIR (or the alternative name CD) command either displays or changes the current working directory.
The command either displays or changes the active code page used to display character glyphs in a console window.
Main article: CHKDSK
CHKDSK verifies a storage volume (for example, a hard disk, disk partition or floppy disk) for file system integrity.
The command has the ability to fix errors on a volume and recover information from defective disk sectors of a volume.
Main article: choice (command)
The CHOICE command is used in batch files to prompt the user to select one item from a set of single-character choices.
Main article: cls (command)
The CLS or CLRSCR command clears the terminal screen.
Main article: copy (command)
Copies files from one location to another. The destination defaults to the current directory. If multiple source files are indicated,
the destination must be a directory, or an error will result. COPY has the ability to concatenate files.
The command can copy in text mode or binary mode; in text mode, copy will stop when it reaches the EOF character;
in binary mode, the files will be concatenated in their entirety, ignoring EOF characters.
Defines the terminal device (for example, COM1) to use for input and output.
Displays the system date and prompts the user to enter a new date. Complements the TIME command.
The command has the ability to analyze the file fragmentation on a disk drive or to defragment a drive.
The command is called DEFRAG in MS-DOS/PC DOS and diskopt in DR-DOS.
DEL (or the alternative form ERASE) is used to delete one or more files.
Deletes a directory along with all of the files and subdirectories that it contains.
Normally, it will ask for confirmation of the potentially dangerous action.
The DIR command displays the contents of a directory.
The ECHO command prints its own arguments back out to the DOS equivalent of the standard output stream.
EDIT is a full-screen text editor.
DOS line-editor. It can be used with a script file, like debug, this makes it of some use even today.
Converts an executable (.exe) file into a binary file with the extension .com, which is a memory image of the program.
The size of the resident code and data sections combined in the input .exe file must be less than 64 KB.
The file must also have no stack segment.
Exits the current command processor. If the exit is used at the primary command, it has no effect unless in a
DOS window under Microsoft Windows, in which case the window is closed and the user returns to the desktop.
FC and COMP
Show differences between any two files, or any two sets of files.
The FDISK command manipulates hard disk partition tables. The name derives from IBM's habit of calling hard drives fixed disks.
FDISK has the ability to display information about, create, and delete DOS partitions or logical DOS drive.
It can also install a standard master boot record on the hard drive.
The FIND command is a filter to find lines in the input data stream that contain or don't contain a specified string
and send these to the output data stream. It may also be used as a pipe.
The FOR loop can be used to parse a file or the output of a command.
Deletes the FAT entries and the root directory of the drive/partition, and reformats it for MS-DOS.
A TSR program to enable the sending of graphical screen dump to printer by pressing Print Screen.
Gives help about DOS commands.
help 'command' would give help on a specific command.
The JOIN command attaches a drive letter to a specified directory on another drive.
Changes the label on a logical drive, such as a hard disk partition or a floppy disk.
Loads a program above the first 64K of memory, and runs the program.
LOADHIGH and LH
MD or MKDIR
Makes a new directory. The parent of the directory specified will be created if it does not already exist.
Displays memory usage. It is capable of displaying program size and status, memory in use, and internal drivers.
Configures system devices. Changes graphics modes, adjusts keyboard settings, prepares code pages, and sets up port redirection.
The MORE command paginates text, so that one can view files containing more than one screen of text. More may also be used as a filter.
Moves files or renames directories. DR-DOS used a separate command for renaming directories, rendir.
The MSD command provides detailed technical information about the computer's hardware and software.
Displays or sets a search path for executable files.
Suspends processing of a batch program and displays the message 'Press any key to continue. . .'.
The PRINT command adds or removes files in the print queue.
RD or RMDIR
Remove a directory (delete a directory).
Remark (comment) command, normally used within a batch file, and for DR-DOS, PC/MS-DOS 6 and above, in CONFIG.SYS.
This command is processed by the command processor.
The REN command renames a file. Unlike the move command, this command cannot be used to rename subdirectories,
or rename files across drives. Mass renames can be accomplished by the use of wildcards.
Disk diagnostic utility.
Sets environment variables.
SetVer is a TSR program designed to return a different value to the version of DOS that is running.
This allows programs that look for a specific version of DOS to run under a different DOS.
Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities.
A filter to sort lines in the input data stream and send them to the output data stream.
A utility to map a subdirectory to a drive letter. The opposite can be achieved via the JOIN command.
A utility to make a volume bootable.
Display the system time and waits for the user to enter a new time. Complements the DATE command.
It is an external command, graphically displays the path of each directory and sub-directories on the specified drive. Syntax:
The TRUENAME command will expand the name of a file, directory, or drive, and display the result. It will expand an
abbreviated form which the command processor can recognise into its full form. It can see through SUBST and JOIN to
find the actual directory.
MS-DOS can find files and directories given their names, without full path information,
if the search object is on a path specified by the environment variable PATH. For example,
if PATH includes C:\PROGRAMS, and file MYPROG.EXE is on this directory, then if MYPROG is typed at the command prompt,
ocessor will execute C:\PROGRAMS\MYPROG.EXE.
Displays a file.
Restores file previously deleted with del. By default all recoverable files in the working directory are restored;
options are used to change this behavior. if the MS-DOS mirror TSR program is used, then deletion tracking files
are created and can be used by undelete.
An internal DOS command, that reports the DOS version presently running.
Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been correctly written to disk.
If no parameter is provided, the command will display the current setting.
Copy entire directory trees. Xcopy is a version of the copy command that can move files and
directories from one location to another.